README.md

    mal - Make a Lisp

    Build Status

    Description

    1. Mal is a Clojure inspired Lisp interpreter

    2. Mal is a learning tool

    Each implementation of mal is separated into 11 incremental, self-contained (and testable) steps that demonstrate core concepts of Lisp. The last step is capable of self-hosting (running the mal implementation of mal). See the make-a-lisp process guide.

    The make-a-lisp steps are:

    Each make-a-lisp step has an associated architectural diagram. That elements that are new for that step are highlighted in red. Here is the final diagram for step A:

    stepA_mal architecture

    If you are interested in creating a mal implementation (or just interested in using mal for something), you are welcome to to join our Discord or join #mal on libera.chat. In addition to the make-a-lisp process guide there is also a mal/make-a-lisp FAQ where I attempt to answer some common questions.

    3. Mal is implemented in 87 languages (93 different implementations and 115 runtime modes)

    Language Creator
    Ada Chris Moore
    Ada #2 Nicolas Boulenguez
    GNU Awk Miutsuru Kariya
    Bash 4 Joel Martin
    BASIC (C64 & QBasic) Joel Martin
    BBC BASIC V Ben Harris
    C Joel Martin
    C #2 Duncan Watts
    C++ Stephen Thirlwall
    C# Joel Martin
    ChucK Vasilij Schneidermann
    Clojure (Clojure & ClojureScript) Joel Martin
    CoffeeScript Joel Martin
    Common Lisp Iqbal Ansari
    Crystal Linda_pp
    D Dov Murik
    Dart Harry Terkelsen
    Elixir Martin Ek
    Elm Jos van Bakel
    Emacs Lisp Vasilij Schneidermann
    Erlang Nathan Fiedler
    ES6 (ECMAScript 2015) Joel Martin
    F# Peter Stephens
    Factor Jordan Lewis
    Fantom Dov Murik
    Fennel sogaiu
    Forth Chris Houser
    GNU Guile Mu Lei
    GNU Smalltalk Vasilij Schneidermann
    Go Joel Martin
    Groovy Joel Martin
    Haskell Joel Martin
    Haxe (Neko, Python, C++, & JS) Joel Martin
    Hy Joel Martin
    Io Dov Murik
    Janet sogaiu
    Java Joel Martin
    Java (Truffle/GraalVM) Matt McGill
    JavaScript (Demo) Joel Martin
    jq Ali MohammadPur
    Julia Joel Martin
    Kotlin Javier Fernandez-Ivern
    LiveScript Jos van Bakel
    Logo Dov Murik
    Lua Joel Martin
    GNU Make Joel Martin
    mal itself Joel Martin
    MATLAB (GNU Octave & MATLAB) Joel Martin
    miniMAL (Repo, Demo) Joel Martin
    NASM Ben Dudson
    Nim Dennis Felsing
    Object Pascal Joel Martin
    Objective C Joel Martin
    OCaml Chris Houser
    Perl Joel Martin
    Perl 6 Hinrik Örn Sigurðsson
    PHP Joel Martin
    Picolisp Vasilij Schneidermann
    Pike Dov Murik
    PL/pgSQL (PostgreSQL) Joel Martin
    PL/SQL (Oracle) Joel Martin
    PostScript Joel Martin
    PowerShell Joel Martin
    Prolog Nicolas Boulenguez
    PureScript mrsekut
    Python (2.X & 3.X) Joel Martin
    Python #2 (3.X) Gavin Lewis
    RPython Joel Martin
    R Joel Martin
    Racket Joel Martin
    Rexx Dov Murik
    Ruby Joel Martin
    Ruby #2 Ryan Cook
    Rust Joel Martin
    Scala Joel Martin
    Scheme (R7RS) Vasilij Schneidermann
    Skew Dov Murik
    Standard ML Fabian Bergström
    Swift 2 Keith Rollin
    Swift 3 Joel Martin
    Swift 4 陆遥
    Swift 5 Oleg Montak
    Tcl Dov Murik
    TypeScript Masahiro Wakame
    Vala Simon Tatham
    VHDL Dov Murik
    Vimscript Dov Murik
    Visual Basic.NET Joel Martin
    WebAssembly (wasm) Joel Martin
    Wren Dov Murik
    XSLT Ali MohammadPur
    Yorick Dov Murik
    Zig Josh Tobin

    Presentations

    Mal was presented publicly for the first time in a lightning talk at Clojure West 2014 (unfortunately there is no video). See examples/clojurewest2014.mal for the presentation that was given at the conference (yes, the presentation is a mal program).

    At Midwest.io 2015, Joel Martin gave a presentation on Mal titled "Achievement Unlocked: A Better Path to Language Learning". Video, Slides.

    More recently Joel gave a presentation on "Make Your Own Lisp Interpreter in 10 Incremental Steps" at LambdaConf 2016: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Slides.

    Building/running implementations

    The simplest way to run any given implementation is to use docker. Every implementation has a docker image pre-built with language dependencies installed. You can launch the REPL using a convenient target in the top level Makefile (where IMPL is the implementation directory name and stepX is the step to run):

    make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL^stepX"
        # OR stepA is the default step:
    make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL"

    External Implementations

    The following implementations are maintained as separate projects:

    HolyC

    Rust

    • by Tim Morgan
    • by vi - using Pest grammar, not using typical Mal infrastructure (cargo-ized steps and built-in converted tests).

    Q

    • by Ali Mohammad Pur - The Q implementation works fine but it requires a proprietary manual download that can't be Dockerized (or integrated into the mal CI pipeline) so for now it remains a separate project.

    Other mal Projects

    • malc - Mal (Make A Lisp) compiler. Compiles a Mal program to LLVM assembly language, then binary.
    • malcc - malcc is an incremental compiler implementation for the Mal language. It uses the Tiny C Compiler as the compiler backend and has full support for the Mal language, including macros, tail-call elimination, and even run-time eval. "I Built a Lisp Compiler" post about the process.
    • frock - Clojure-flavoured PHP. Uses mal/php to run programs.
    • flk - A LISP that runs wherever Bash is
    • glisp - Self-bootstrapping graphic design tool on Lisp. Live Demo

    Implementation Details

    Ada

    The Ada implementation was developed with GNAT 4.9 on debian. It also compiles unchanged on windows if you have windows versions of git, GNAT and (optionally) make. There are no external dependencies (readline not implemented).

    cd impls/ada
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    Ada.2

    The second Ada implementation was developed with GNAT 8 and links with the GNU readline library.

    cd impls/ada
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    GNU awk

    The GNU awk implementation of mal has been tested with GNU awk 4.1.1.

    cd impls/gawk
    gawk -O -f stepX_YYY.awk

    Bash 4

    cd impls/bash
    bash stepX_YYY.sh

    BASIC (C64 and QBasic)

    The BASIC implementation uses a preprocessor that can generate BASIC code that is compatible with both C64 BASIC (CBM v2) and QBasic. The C64 mode has been tested with cbmbasic (the patched version is currently required to fix issues with line input) and the QBasic mode has been tested with qb64.

    Generate C64 code and run it using cbmbasic:

    cd impls/basic
    make stepX_YYY.bas
    STEP=stepX_YYY ./run

    Generate QBasic code and load it into qb64:

    cd impls/basic
    make MODE=qbasic stepX_YYY.bas
    ./qb64 stepX_YYY.bas

    Thanks to Steven Syrek for the original inspiration for this implementation.

    BBC BASIC V

    The BBC BASIC V implementation can run in the Brandy interpreter:

    cd impls/bbc-basic
    brandy -quit stepX_YYY.bbc

    Or in ARM BBC BASIC V under RISC OS 3 or later:

    *Dir bbc-basic.riscos
    *Run setup
    *Run stepX_YYY

    C

    The C implementation of mal requires the following libraries (lib and header packages): glib, libffi6, libgc, and either the libedit or GNU readline library.

    cd impls/c
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    C.2

    The second C implementation of mal requires the following libraries (lib and header packages): libedit, libgc, libdl, and libffi.

    cd impls/c.2
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    C++

    The C++ implementation of mal requires g++-4.9 or clang++-3.5 and a readline compatible library to build. See the cpp/README.md for more details:

    cd impls/cpp
    make
        # OR
    make CXX=clang++-3.5
    ./stepX_YYY

    C#

    The C# implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the Mono C# compiler (mcs) and the Mono runtime (version 2.10.8.1). Both are required to build and run the C# implementation.

    cd impls/cs
    make
    mono ./stepX_YYY.exe

    ChucK

    The ChucK implementation has been tested with ChucK 1.3.5.2.

    cd impls/chuck
    ./run

    Clojure

    For the most part the Clojure implementation requires Clojure 1.5, however, to pass all tests, Clojure 1.8.0-RC4 is required.

    cd impls/clojure
    lein with-profile +stepX trampoline run

    CoffeeScript

    sudo npm install -g coffee-script
    cd impls/coffee
    coffee ./stepX_YYY

    Common Lisp

    The implementation has been tested with SBCL, CCL, CMUCL, GNU CLISP, ECL and Allegro CL on Ubuntu 16.04 and Ubuntu 12.04, see the README for more details. Provided you have the dependencies mentioned installed, do the following to run the implementation

    cd impls/common-lisp
    make
    ./run

    Crystal

    The Crystal implementation of mal has been tested with Crystal 0.26.1.

    cd impls/crystal
    crystal run ./stepX_YYY.cr
        # OR
    make   # needed to run tests
    ./stepX_YYY

    D

    The D implementation of mal was tested with GDC 4.8. It requires the GNU readline library.

    cd impls/d
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    Dart

    The Dart implementation has been tested with Dart 1.20.

    cd impls/dart
    dart ./stepX_YYY

    Emacs Lisp

    The Emacs Lisp implementation of mal has been tested with Emacs 24.3 and 24.5. While there is very basic readline editing (<backspace> and C-d work, C-c cancels the process), it is recommended to use rlwrap.

    cd impls/elisp
    emacs -Q --batch --load stepX_YYY.el
    # with full readline support
    rlwrap emacs -Q --batch --load stepX_YYY.el

    Elixir

    The Elixir implementation of mal has been tested with Elixir 1.0.5.

    cd impls/elixir
    mix stepX_YYY
    # Or with readline/line editing functionality:
    iex -S mix stepX_YYY

    Elm

    The Elm implementation of mal has been tested with Elm 0.18.0

    cd impls/elm
    make stepX_YYY.js
    STEP=stepX_YYY ./run

    Erlang

    The Erlang implementation of mal requires Erlang/OTP R17 and rebar to build.

    cd impls/erlang
    make
        # OR
    MAL_STEP=stepX_YYY rebar compile escriptize # build individual step
    ./stepX_YYY

    ES6 (ECMAScript 2015)

    The ES6 / ECMAScript 2015 implementation uses the babel compiler to generate ES5 compatible JavaScript. The generated code has been tested with Node 0.12.4.

    cd impls/es6
    make
    node build/stepX_YYY.js

    F#

    The F# implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the Mono F# compiler (fsharpc) and the Mono runtime (version 3.12.1). The mono C# compiler (mcs) is also necessary to compile the readline dependency. All are required to build and run the F# implementation.

    cd impls/fsharp
    make
    mono ./stepX_YYY.exe

    Factor

    The Factor implementation of mal has been tested with Factor 0.97 (factorcode.org).

    cd impls/factor
    FACTOR_ROOTS=. factor -run=stepX_YYY

    Fantom

    The Fantom implementation of mal has been tested with Fantom 1.0.70.

    cd impls/fantom
    make lib/fan/stepX_YYY.pod
    STEP=stepX_YYY ./run

    Fennel

    The Fennel implementation of mal has been tested with Fennel version 0.9.1 on Lua 5.4.

    cd impls/fennel
    fennel ./stepX_YYY.fnl

    Forth

    cd impls/forth
    gforth stepX_YYY.fs

    GNU Guile 2.1+

    cd impls/guile
    guile -L ./ stepX_YYY.scm

    GNU Smalltalk

    The Smalltalk implementation of mal has been tested with GNU Smalltalk 3.2.91.

    cd impls/gnu-smalltalk
    ./run

    Go

    The Go implementation of mal requires that go is installed on on the path. The implementation has been tested with Go 1.3.1.

    cd impls/go
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    Groovy

    The Groovy implementation of mal requires Groovy to run and has been tested with Groovy 1.8.6.

    cd impls/groovy
    make
    groovy ./stepX_YYY.groovy

    Haskell

    The Haskell implementation requires the ghc compiler version 7.10.1 or later and also the Haskell parsec and readline (or editline) packages.

    cd impls/haskell
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    Haxe (Neko, Python, C++ and JavaScript)

    The Haxe implementation of mal requires Haxe version 3.2 to compile. Four different Haxe targets are supported: Neko, Python, C++, and JavaScript.

    cd impls/haxe
    # Neko
    make all-neko
    neko ./stepX_YYY.n
    # Python
    make all-python
    python3 ./stepX_YYY.py
    # C++
    make all-cpp
    ./cpp/stepX_YYY
    # JavaScript
    make all-js
    node ./stepX_YYY.js

    Hy

    The Hy implementation of mal has been tested with Hy 0.13.0.

    cd impls/hy
    ./stepX_YYY.hy

    Io

    The Io implementation of mal has been tested with Io version 20110905.

    cd impls/io
    io ./stepX_YYY.io

    Janet

    The Janet implementation of mal has been tested with Janet version 1.12.2.

    cd impls/janet
    janet ./stepX_YYY.janet

    Java 1.7

    The Java implementation of mal requires maven2 to build.

    cd impls/java
    mvn compile
    mvn -quiet exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=mal.stepX_YYY
        # OR
    mvn -quiet exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=mal.stepX_YYY -Dexec.args="CMDLINE_ARGS"

    Java, using Truffle for GraalVM

    This Java implementation will run on OpenJDK, but can run as much as 30x faster on GraalVM thanks to the Truffle framework. It's been tested with OpenJDK 11, GraalVM CE 20.1.0, and GraalVM CE 21.1.0.

    cd impls/java-truffle
    ./gradlew build
    STEP=stepX_YYY ./run

    JavaScript/Node

    cd impls/js
    npm install
    node stepX_YYY.js

    Julia

    The Julia implementation of mal requires Julia 0.4.

    cd impls/julia
    julia stepX_YYY.jl

    jq

    Tested against version 1.6, with a lot of cheating in the IO department

    cd impls/jq
    STEP=stepA_YYY ./run
        # with Debug
    DEBUG=true STEP=stepA_YYY ./run

    Kotlin

    The Kotlin implementation of mal has been tested with Kotlin 1.0.

    cd impls/kotlin
    make
    java -jar stepX_YYY.jar

    LiveScript

    The LiveScript implementation of mal has been tested with LiveScript 1.5.

    cd impls/livescript
    make
    node_modules/.bin/lsc stepX_YYY.ls

    Logo

    The Logo implementation of mal has been tested with UCBLogo 6.0.

    cd impls/logo
    logo stepX_YYY.lg

    Lua

    The Lua implementation of mal has been tested with Lua 5.3.5 The implementation requires luarocks to be installed.

    cd impls/lua
    make  # to build and link linenoise.so and rex_pcre.so
    ./stepX_YYY.lua

    Mal

    Running the mal implementation of mal involves running stepA of one of the other implementations and passing the mal step to run as a command line argument.

    cd impls/IMPL
    IMPL_STEPA_CMD ../mal/stepX_YYY.mal
    

    GNU Make 3.81

    cd impls/make
    make -f stepX_YYY.mk

    NASM

    The NASM implementation of mal is written for x86-64 Linux, and has been tested with Linux 3.16.0-4-amd64 and NASM version 2.11.05.

    cd impls/nasm
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    Nim 1.0.4

    The Nim implementation of mal has been tested with Nim 1.0.4.

    cd impls/nim
    make
      # OR
    nimble build
    ./stepX_YYY

    Object Pascal

    The Object Pascal implementation of mal has been built and tested on Linux using the Free Pascal compiler version 2.6.2 and 2.6.4.

    cd impls/objpascal
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    Objective C

    The Objective C implementation of mal has been built and tested on Linux using clang/LLVM 3.6. It has also been built and tested on OS X using XCode 7.

    cd impls/objc
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    OCaml 4.01.0

    cd impls/ocaml
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    MATLAB (GNU Octave and MATLAB)

    The MatLab implementation has been tested with GNU Octave 4.2.1. It has also been tested with MATLAB version R2014a on Linux. Note that MATLAB is a commercial product.

    cd impls/matlab
    ./stepX_YYY
    octave -q --no-gui --no-history --eval "stepX_YYY();quit;"
    matlab -nodisplay -nosplash -nodesktop -nojvm -r "stepX_YYY();quit;"
        # OR with command line arguments
    octave -q --no-gui --no-history --eval "stepX_YYY('arg1','arg2');quit;"
    matlab -nodisplay -nosplash -nodesktop -nojvm -r "stepX_YYY('arg1','arg2');quit;"

    miniMAL

    miniMAL is small Lisp interpreter implemented in less than 1024 bytes of JavaScript. To run the miniMAL implementation of mal you need to download/install the miniMAL interpreter (which requires Node.js).

    cd impls/miniMAL
    # Download miniMAL and dependencies
    npm install
    export PATH=`pwd`/node_modules/minimal-lisp/:$PATH
    # Now run mal implementation in miniMAL
    miniMAL ./stepX_YYY

    Perl 5

    The Perl 5 implementation should work with perl 5.19.3 and later.

    For readline line editing support, install Term::ReadLine::Perl or Term::ReadLine::Gnu from CPAN.

    cd impls/perl
    perl stepX_YYY.pl

    Perl 6

    The Perl 6 implementation was tested on Rakudo Perl 6 2016.04.

    cd impls/perl6
    perl6 stepX_YYY.pl

    PHP 5.3

    The PHP implementation of mal requires the php command line interface to run.

    cd impls/php
    php stepX_YYY.php

    Picolisp

    The Picolisp implementation requires libreadline and Picolisp 3.1.11 or later.

    cd impls/picolisp
    ./run

    Pike

    The Pike implementation was tested on Pike 8.0.

    cd impls/pike
    pike stepX_YYY.pike

    PL/pgSQL (PostgreSQL SQL Procedural Language)

    The PL/pgSQL implementation of mal requires a running PostgreSQL server (the "kanaka/mal-test-plpgsql" docker image automatically starts a PostgreSQL server). The implementation connects to the PostgreSQL server and create a database named "mal" to store tables and stored procedures. The wrapper script uses the psql command to connect to the server and defaults to the user "postgres" but this can be overridden with the PSQL_USER environment variable. A password can be specified using the PGPASSWORD environment variable. The implementation has been tested with PostgreSQL 9.4.

    cd impls/plpgsql
    ./wrap.sh stepX_YYY.sql
        # OR
    PSQL_USER=myuser PGPASSWORD=mypass ./wrap.sh stepX_YYY.sql

    PL/SQL (Oracle SQL Procedural Language)

    The PL/SQL implementation of mal requires a running Oracle DB server (the "kanaka/mal-test-plsql" docker image automatically starts an Oracle Express server). The implementation connects to the Oracle server to create types, tables and stored procedures. The default SQL*Plus logon value (username/password@connect_identifier) is "system/oracle" but this can be overridden with the ORACLE_LOGON environment variable. The implementation has been tested with Oracle Express Edition 11g Release 2. Note that any SQL*Plus connection warnings (user password expiration, etc) will interfere with the ability of the wrapper script to communicate with the DB.

    cd impls/plsql
    ./wrap.sh stepX_YYY.sql
        # OR
    ORACLE_LOGON=myuser/mypass@ORCL ./wrap.sh stepX_YYY.sql

    PostScript Level 2/3

    The PostScript implementation of mal requires Ghostscript to run. It has been tested with Ghostscript 9.10.

    cd impls/ps
    gs -q -dNODISPLAY -I./ stepX_YYY.ps

    PowerShell

    The PowerShell implementation of mal requires the PowerShell script language. It has been tested with PowerShell 6.0.0 Alpha 9 on Linux.

    cd impls/powershell
    powershell ./stepX_YYY.ps1

    Prolog

    The Prolog implementation uses some constructs specific to SWI-Prolog, includes readline support and has been tested on Debian GNU/Linux with version 8.2.1.

    cd impls/prolog
    swipl stepX_YYY

    PureScript

    The PureScript implementation requires the spago compiler version 0.20.2.

    cd impls/purs
    make
    node ./stepX_YYY.js

    Python (2.X and 3.X)

    cd impls/python
    python stepX_YYY.py

    Python.2 (3.X)

    The second Python implementation makes heavy use of type annotations and uses the Arpeggio parser library.

    # Recommended: do these steps in a Python virtual environment.
    pip3 install Arpeggio==1.9.0
    python3 stepX_YYY.py

    RPython

    You must have rpython on your path (included with pypy).

    cd impls/rpython
    make        # this takes a very long time
    ./stepX_YYY

    R

    The R implementation of mal requires R (r-base-core) to run.

    cd impls/r
    make libs  # to download and build rdyncall
    Rscript stepX_YYY.r

    Racket (5.3)

    The Racket implementation of mal requires the Racket compiler/interpreter to run.

    cd impls/racket
    ./stepX_YYY.rkt

    Rexx

    The Rexx implementation of mal has been tested with Regina Rexx 3.6.

    cd impls/rexx
    make
    rexx -a ./stepX_YYY.rexxpp

    Ruby (1.9+)

    cd impls/ruby
    ruby stepX_YYY.rb

    Ruby #2

    A second Ruby implementation with the following goals:

    • No global variables
    • No modification (monkey-patching) of core Ruby classes
    • Modularized into the Mal module namespace
    cd impls/ruby.2
    ruby stepX_YYY.rb

    Rust (1.38+)

    The rust implementation of mal requires the rust compiler and build tool (cargo) to build.

    cd impls/rust
    cargo run --release --bin stepX_YYY

    Scala

    Install scala and sbt (http://www.scala-sbt.org/0.13/tutorial/Installing-sbt-on-Linux.html):

    cd impls/scala
    sbt 'run-main stepX_YYY'
        # OR
    sbt compile
    scala -classpath target/scala*/classes stepX_YYY

    Scheme (R7RS)

    The Scheme implementation of MAL has been tested with Chibi-Scheme 0.10, Kawa 3.1.1, Gauche 0.9.6, CHICKEN 5.1.0, Sagittarius 0.9.7, Cyclone 0.32.0 (Git version) and Foment 0.4 (Git version). You should be able to get it running on other conforming R7RS implementations after figuring out how libraries are loaded and adjusting the Makefile and run script accordingly.

    cd impls/scheme
    # chibi
    scheme_MODE=chibi ./run
    # kawa
    make kawa
    scheme_MODE=kawa ./run
    # gauche
    scheme_MODE=gauche ./run
    # chicken
    make chicken
    scheme_MODE=chicken ./run
    # sagittarius
    scheme_MODE=sagittarius ./run
    # cyclone
    make cyclone
    scheme_MODE=cyclone ./run
    # foment
    scheme_MODE=foment ./run

    Skew

    The Skew implementation of mal has been tested with Skew 0.7.42.

    cd impls/skew
    make
    node stepX_YYY.js

    Standard ML (Poly/ML, MLton, Moscow ML)

    The Standard ML implementation of mal requires an SML97 implementation. The Makefile supports Poly/ML, MLton, Moscow ML, and has been tested with Poly/ML 5.8.1, MLton 20210117, and Moscow ML version 2.10.

    cd impls/sml
    # Poly/ML
    make sml_MODE=polyml
    ./stepX_YYY
    # MLton
    make sml_MODE=mlton
    ./stepX_YYY
    # Moscow ML
    make sml_MODE=mosml
    ./stepX_YYY

    Swift

    The Swift implementation of mal requires the Swift 2.0 compiler (XCode 7.0) to build. Older versions will not work due to changes in the language and standard library.

    cd impls/swift
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    Swift 3

    The Swift 3 implementation of mal requires the Swift 3.0 compiler. It has been tested with Swift 3 Preview 3.

    cd impls/swift3
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    Swift 4

    The Swift 4 implementation of mal requires the Swift 4.0 compiler. It has been tested with Swift 4.2.3 release.

    cd impls/swift4
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    Swift 5

    The Swift 5 implementation of mal requires the Swift 5.0 compiler. It has been tested with Swift 5.1.1 release.

    cd impls/swift5
    swift run stepX_YYY

    Tcl 8.6

    The Tcl implementation of mal requires Tcl 8.6 to run. For readline line editing support, install tclreadline.

    cd impls/tcl
    tclsh ./stepX_YYY.tcl

    TypeScript

    The TypeScript implementation of mal requires the TypeScript 2.2 compiler. It has been tested with Node.js v6.

    cd impls/ts
    make
    node ./stepX_YYY.js

    Vala

    The Vala implementation of mal has been tested with the Vala 0.40.8 compiler. You will need to install valac and libreadline-dev or equivalent.

    cd impls/vala
    make
    ./stepX_YYY

    VHDL

    The VHDL implementation of mal has been tested with GHDL 0.29.

    cd impls/vhdl
    make
    ./run_vhdl.sh ./stepX_YYY

    Vimscript

    The Vimscript implementation of mal requires Vim 8.0 to run.

    cd impls/vimscript
    ./run_vimscript.sh ./stepX_YYY.vim

    Visual Basic.NET

    The VB.NET implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the Mono VB compiler (vbnc) and the Mono runtime (version 2.10.8.1). Both are required to build and run the VB.NET implementation.

    cd impls/vb
    make
    mono ./stepX_YYY.exe

    WebAssembly (wasm)

    The WebAssembly implementation is written in Wam (WebAssembly Macro language) and runs under several different non-web embeddings (runtimes): node, wasmtime, wasmer, lucet, wax, wace, warpy.

    cd impls/wasm
    # node
    make wasm_MODE=node
    ./run.js ./stepX_YYY.wasm
    # wasmtime
    make wasm_MODE=wasmtime
    wasmtime --dir=./ --dir=../ --dir=/ ./stepX_YYY.wasm
    # wasmer
    make wasm_MODE=wasmer
    wasmer run --dir=./ --dir=../ --dir=/ ./stepX_YYY.wasm
    # lucet
    make wasm_MODE=lucet
    lucet-wasi --dir=./:./ --dir=../:../ --dir=/:/ ./stepX_YYY.so
    # wax
    make wasm_MODE=wax
    wax ./stepX_YYY.wasm
    # wace
    make wasm_MODE=wace_libc
    wace ./stepX_YYY.wasm
    # warpy
    make wasm_MODE=warpy
    warpy --argv --memory-pages 256 ./stepX_YYY.wasm

    XSLT

    The XSLT implementation of mal is written with XSLT 3 and tested on Saxon 9.9.1.6 Home Edition.

    cd impls/xslt
    STEP=stepX_YY ./run

    Wren

    The Wren implementation of mal was tested on Wren 0.2.0.

    cd impls/wren
    wren ./stepX_YYY.wren

    Yorick

    The Yorick implementation of mal was tested on Yorick 2.2.04.

    cd impls/yorick
    yorick -batch ./stepX_YYY.i

    Zig

    The Zig implementation of mal was tested on Zig 0.5.

    cd impls/zig
    zig build stepX_YYY

    Running tests

    The top level Makefile has a number of useful targets to assist with implementation development and testing. The help target provides a list of the targets and options:

    make help

    Functional tests

    The are almost 800 generic functional tests (for all implementations) in the tests/ directory. Each step has a corresponding test file containing tests specific to that step. The runtest.py test harness launches a Mal step implementation and then feeds the tests one at a time to the implementation and compares the output/return value to the expected output/return value.

    • To run all the tests across all implementations (be prepared to wait):
    make test
    • To run all tests against a single implementation:
    make "test^IMPL"
    
    # e.g.
    make "test^clojure"
    make "test^js"
    • To run tests for a single step against all implementations:
    make "test^stepX"
    
    # e.g.
    make "test^step2"
    make "test^step7"
    • To run tests for a specific step against a single implementation:
    make "test^IMPL^stepX"
    
    # e.g
    make "test^ruby^step3"
    make "test^ps^step4"

    Self-hosted functional tests

    • To run the functional tests in self-hosted mode, you specify mal as the test implementation and use the MAL_IMPL make variable to change the underlying host language (default is JavaScript):
    make MAL_IMPL=IMPL "test^mal^step2"
    
    # e.g.
    make "test^mal^step2"   # js is default
    make MAL_IMPL=ruby "test^mal^step2"
    make MAL_IMPL=python "test^mal^step2"

    Starting the REPL

    • To start the REPL of an implementation in a specific step:
    make "repl^IMPL^stepX"
    
    # e.g
    make "repl^ruby^step3"
    make "repl^ps^step4"
    • If you omit the step, then stepA is used:
    make "repl^IMPL"
    
    # e.g
    make "repl^ruby"
    make "repl^ps"
    • To start the REPL of the self-hosted implementation, specify mal as the REPL implementation and use the MAL_IMPL make variable to change the underlying host language (default is JavaScript):
    make MAL_IMPL=IMPL "repl^mal^stepX"
    
    # e.g.
    make "repl^mal^step2"   # js is default
    make MAL_IMPL=ruby "repl^mal^step2"
    make MAL_IMPL=python "repl^mal"

    Performance tests

    Warning: These performance tests are neither statistically valid nor comprehensive; runtime performance is a not a primary goal of mal. If you draw any serious conclusions from these performance tests, then please contact me about some amazing oceanfront property in Kansas that I'm willing to sell you for cheap.

    • To run performance tests against a single implementation:
    make "perf^IMPL"
    
    # e.g.
    make "perf^js"
    • To run performance tests against all implementations:
    make "perf"

    Generating language statistics

    • To report line and byte statistics for a single implementation:
    make "stats^IMPL"
    
    # e.g.
    make "stats^js"

    Dockerized testing

    Every implementation directory contains a Dockerfile to create a docker image containing all the dependencies for that implementation. In addition, the top-level Makefile contains support for running the tests target (and perf, stats, repl, etc) within a docker container for that implementation by passing "DOCKERIZE=1" on the make command line. For example:

    make DOCKERIZE=1 "test^js^step3"

    Existing implementations already have docker images built and pushed to the docker registry. However, if you wish to build or rebuild a docker image locally, the toplevel Makefile provides a rule for building docker images:

    make "docker-build^IMPL"

    Notes:

    • Docker images are named "kanaka/mal-test-IMPL"
    • JVM-based language implementations (Groovy, Java, Clojure, Scala): you will probably need to run this command once manually first make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL" before you can run tests because runtime dependencies need to be downloaded to avoid the tests timing out. These dependencies are downloaded to dot-files in the /mal directory so they will persist between runs.

    License

    Mal (make-a-lisp) is licensed under the MPL 2.0 (Mozilla Public License 2.0). See LICENSE.txt for more details.

    项目简介

    mal - Make a Lisp

    🚀 Github 镜像仓库 🚀

    源项目地址

    https://github.com/kanaka/mal

    发行版本 1

    v0.1

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